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API例子:用Python驱动Firefox采集网页数据 | 一起学习Python网络爬虫

2018-09-30 10:55:04  阅读:535  来源: 互联网

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1,引言

  • 本次测试的环境是:Windows10, Python3.4.3 32bit
  • 安装Scrapy : $ pip install Scrapy #实际安装时,由于服务器状态的不稳定,出现好几次中途退出的情况

3,编写运行第一个Scrapy爬虫

3.1. 生成一个新项目:tutorial

$ scrapy startproject tutorial

项目目录结构如下:

3.2. 定义要抓取的item
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define here the models for your scraped items
#
# See documentation in:
# http://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/items.html

import scrapy

class DmozItem(scrapy.Item):
    title = scrapy.Field()
    link = scrapy.Field()
    desc = scrapy.Field()
3.3. 定义Spider
import scrapy
from tutorial.items import DmozItem

class DmozSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    name = "dmoz"
    allowed_domains = ["dmoz.org"]
    start_urls = [
        "http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/Programming/Languages/Python/Books/",
        "http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/Programming/Languages/Python/Resources/"
    ]

    def parse(self, response):
        for sel in response.xpath('//ul/li'):
            item = DmozItem()
            item['title'] = sel.xpath('a/text()').extract()
            item['link'] = sel.xpath('a/@href').extract()
            item['desc'] = sel.xpath('text()').extract()
            yield item

3.4. 运行
$ scrapy crawl dmoz -o item.json

1) 结果报错:
A) ImportError: cannot import name '_win32stdio'
B) ImportError: No module named 'win32api'

3) 解决过程:

A) 需要手工去下载

twisted/internet

下的 _win32stdio 和 _pollingfile,存放到python目录的lib\sitepackages\twisted\internet下

B) 下载并安装

pywin32

再次运行,成功!在控制台上可以看到scrapy的输出信息,待运行完成退出后,到项目目录打开结果文件items.json, 可以看到里面以json格式存储的爬取结果。

[
{"title": ["        About       "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/docs/en/about.html"]},
{"title": ["   Become an Editor "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/docs/en/help/become.html"]},
{"title": ["            Suggest a Site          "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/docs/en/add.html"]},
{"title": [" Help             "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/docs/en/help/helpmain.html"]},
{"title": [" Login                       "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/editors/"]},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", " Share via Facebook "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", "  Share via Twitter  "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", " Share via LinkedIn "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", " Share via e-Mail   "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", "  "], "link": []},
{"title": ["        About       "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/docs/en/about.html"]},
{"title": ["   Become an Editor "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/docs/en/help/become.html"]},
{"title": ["            Suggest a Site          "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/docs/en/add.html"]},
{"title": [" Help             "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/docs/en/help/helpmain.html"]},
{"title": [" Login                       "], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": ["/editors/"]},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", " Share via Facebook "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", "  Share via Twitter  "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", " Share via LinkedIn "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", " Share via e-Mail   "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", " "], "link": []},
{"title": [], "desc": [" ", "  "], "link": []}
]
第一次运行scrapy的测试成功。
4,接下来的工作
接下来,我将使用GooSeeker API来实现网络爬虫,省掉对每个item人工去生成和测试xpath的工作量。目前有2个计划:
  1. 在gsExtractor中封装一个方法:从xslt内容中自动提取每个item的xpath
  2. 从gsExtractor的提取结果中自动提取每个item的结果
具体选择哪个方案,将在接下来的实验中确定,并发布到gsExtractor新版本中

5,文档修改历史

2016-11-04:V1.0,首次发布

标签:
来源: http://gooseeker.blogspot.com/2016/11/apipythonfirefox.html

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